Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Pulitzer Prize winner, Anne Tyler has brought a fictional group of characters to real life in her 17th novel, Digging to America. Bonding two vastly different families on a chance meeting at an airport, ones all-American the other Iranian immigrants, she assimilates present US culture with a strong emphasis on friendship, parenting, traditions and accents it with a tender romance. I would consider Maryam Yaszdan to be TylerÃ¢â¬â¢s, central character, who after being in America for almost 40 years, still feels like a foreigner.During the six-year span that these familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives intertwine, MaryamÃ¢â¬â¢s view of this plight resonates throughout inflicting bits of conflict and resentment. Friday, August 15, l997, a Balitmore airport, two separate groups anxiously gathered, unknowingly, for the same plane to arrive, for the same reason; to pick up their baby girls adopted from the same country, Korea.. Observing their ethnic differences, we see an American family entourage equ ipped with buttons that read Ã¢â¬Å"MOM,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"DAD. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"GANDMA,Ã¢â¬Å" and Ã¢â¬Å"GRANDPAÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"twice overÃ¢â¬ ); silvery balloons printed with Ã¢â¬Å" ITÃ¢â¬â¢S A GIRL!Ã¢â¬ ; half a dozen video cameras, car seat, skirted bassinet and enough bubbling enthusiasm to be on the borderline of obnoxiousness.The other family, in a single line of three; a young couple, Ã¢â¬Å" foreign-looking, olive-skinned,Ã¢â¬ (7) and an older woman, quietly awaited, no adoption flair, focused solely on the arrival of their new baby. First to depart from the plan an Asian woman calling for the Donaldsons. She introduces the family to Jin-Ho; flashbulbs, cameras, a crowd of people to welcome the newborn.. Another Asian woman steps off, calling for the YazdanÃ¢â¬â¢s; Ã¢â¬Å"Congratulations, this is Sooki,Ã¢â¬ she said.(7) As the women were completing the transfers, someone asked Ã¢â¬Å"Is yours from Korea too? Ã¢â¬ (8) That answer started a lasting friendship and an improbable journey for two mismatched families. Bitsy and Brad Donaldson were a typical American family. I know these sounds like a 50Ã¢â¬â¢s sitcom, but that was my impression. They lived in white clapboard Colonial on a narrow street in Mount Washington. Bitsy was plain, extroverted and very opinionated, especially when it came to child rearing. She was adamant about her way being the right way.Brad was a good provider, his mild temperament made him the perfect peacekeeper, smoothing out impending disagreements when their large family visited. Having a baby would complete the picture, and Jin Ho did just that along with mixing up the way an all-American family looks. It was curious to me that this Ã¢â¬Å"typical American,Ã¢â¬ family insisted on not changing the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s name, keeping her squared off haircut and dressing her in Korean costumes. I can understand them wanting her to know about her birth country and its culture, but I felt it was to an extreme.My conclus ion was relevant, Jin Ho did resent not feeling as American as her friends when she got older. Maybe, BitsyÃ¢â¬â¢s way was not always the right way, after all. Ziba and Sami Yazdan was Iranian-American. They met in college where Sami studied to be a teacher like his father, who died when he was 14 years old. After they were married, Sami started to work for a real estate developer, in spite of his mother, MaryamÃ¢â¬â¢s silent disapproval, and made it his career. The couple moved into his companyÃ¢â¬â¢s newest development , a large, beautiful home in a Hunt Valley.Ziba was glamorous, bordering on more of a flashy appearance, she enjoyed her job as an interior decorator. Sami was a serious type and had indifference toward Iran and America. He would go into a litany of Ã¢â¬Å"these AmericansÃ¢â¬ ¦. ,Ã¢â¬ (80) when his relatives would visit. The list covered such issues as AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with logic and that itÃ¢â¬â¢s the reason Ã¢â¬Å"theyÃ¢â¬â¢re always suing each other,Ã¢â¬ (81) AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re an interest to the whole world, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re immediate directness to open up to people, and my personal favorite, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re Ã¢â¬Å"do-your-own-thing kind of culture.Ã¢â¬ (82)Even with this attitude, Sami refused to speak Farsi, as his relatives did frequently, and conversed only in English. During these tirades , Maryam, would be outraged, at Sami, reminding him sternly Ã¢â¬Å"American born, American raised, never been anywhere else: how can you say these things? YouÃ¢â¬â¢re American yourself! Ã¢â¬ (82) She would continue with the constraints of living in Iran having to be cautious of every word you spoke, having to keep every opinion to yourself and the need to always be aware of who may be listening. Maryam would end with the always-useful adage, Ã¢â¬Å"You take it for granted, is the problem.Ã¢â¬ (83)In complete contrast to SamiÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-American comments, he and Ziba were determined to hav e the American dream realized for Sooki. , and unlike the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s, they immediately changed her name to Susan. The Yazdan-DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship began with Bitsy and one of many family gatherings. She phoned the only Ã¢â¬Å"YazdanÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ in the phone book, to invite them to a Ã¢â¬Å"leaf raking party. Ã¢â¬ Bitsy told Maryam, who was babysitting Susan, that she wanted the girls to know each other, she felt it was important for them to maintain their cultural heritage.They accepted the invitation, which included Maryam, since both sets of Jin HoÃ¢â¬â¢s grandparents, would also be there. Ziba was a little insecure, besides the babies ,she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much in common since the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s were much older, Maryam going would lighten the event, and give her support. Leaf raking party was just that, everyone raked leaves. The usual Ã¢â¬Å"my baby this and my baby thatÃ¢â¬ banter commenced and at times made Ziba questioned her mothering capa bilities. Was she doing everything wrong?Jin Ho was already eating food, Susan was still on the bottle. Should she be wearing more black and white clothes like Bitsy, because babies didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see in color? Moreover, the biggest controversy should she be a stay at home mom. Maryam interrupted, seeing ZibaÃ¢â¬â¢s frustration, saying how much she looked forward to her couple of days watching Susan, but BitsyÃ¢â¬â¢s disapproval still showed.. Bitsy and BradÃ¢â¬â¢s parents arrived and then the Ã¢â¬Å"grandparent baby banterÃ¢â¬ began.After the raking, supper was served. Bitsy said Ã¢â¬Å"We certainly love your cuisine,Ã¢â¬ Ã this opened a conversation about Iran. Pat, BradÃ¢â¬â¢s mother asked if they had any trouble during the Iranian hostage crisis, Ziba said she was already in America then everyone glanced at Maryam, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, perhaps a little,Ã¢â¬ (29) she reluctantly said, steering the talk back to a safe subject, Ã¢â¬Å"the girls. Ã¢â¬ After that night, the two families got together often, although Maryam politely declined, when invited. Ziba and Sami celebrated the Iranian New Year with her parents, so Maryam stopped having a formal celebration, except for this spring.Ziba wanted the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s to be a part of theyÃ¢â¬â¢re tradition so she persuaded Maryam to have the celebration at her house Normally Maryam would be willing, but her thoughts were rattling with Ã¢â¬Å"Why should they have to put on these ethnic demonstrations? Let the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s go to the Smithsonian for that! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å" Let them read the National Geographic! Ã¢â¬ Just thoughts, she never would say them aloud, and agreed to the party. A few weeks before the party, Sami took Maryam to Rockville for exotic ingredients to make the traditional Iranian dishes.She told him Ã¢â¬Å"When I first came to this country, your grandmother had to mail most of my spices from Iran. Ã¢â¬ (37) Maryam was 19 years old going to America for an arranged marriage to Kiyan. She had met him in Iran, but he went to America earlier to start his job as a teacher, they married via telephone and grew to love each other very much. In those days, all their couple friends were Iranian, in the same situation. She wondered where all those people were now, moved to other cities, political differences separated them, Ã¢â¬Å"Who supported the Shah? Who did not?Ã¢â¬ (37) and since KiyanÃ¢â¬â¢s death she felt she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t belong Ã¢â¬Å"in that two-by-two circle. Ã¢â¬ (37)Maryam, perhaps because she was widowed for so long, became more critical, having to pay close attention to her mannerisms around people. She tended to come of as refined and unapproachable, when she was really kind and loving. Working in an office at a the day care center, Susan would eventually attend, she had many single friends, both Iranian and American, She had an active social life, but she built the toughest invisible wall around her heart, never letting any man go beyon d it. At least not until, BitsyÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Dave.On the one-year anniversary of the day the girls arrived, Bitsy wanted to have an Ã¢â¬Å"Arrival Party,Ã¢â¬Å"(56) she named it to celebrate the event. Similar to a birthday party, with a Korean desert, cake and candles, and the showing of the video taken at the airport. Brad was concerned it would be too much for Bitsy, since her mother had a set back with her cancer but this was just the diversion she needed. The day quickly came and the first to arrive were ZibaÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Hakimi, very exotic, they entered in a very respectful manner. Next to arrive Bitsy and BradÃ¢â¬â¢s family, then the Yardans.Susan was in a pretty party dress and Jin Ho in a full Korean costume. The girls played together unaware of any differences between them or their families. Childhood simplicity, if we all could remain in that frame of mind, how pleasant the world would be. Bitsy had a specific line up starting with a theme song, S heÃ¢â¬â¢ll Be Coming Round the Mountain , sung by the guests, as the girls blew out the candles, on their Stars and Stripes cake, then the video Bitsy apologized that it was just of Jin Ho and if they had known Susan would be coming they would have taped her too. Ã¢â¬ Oh, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s okay,Ã¢â¬ Ziba said. Ã¢â¬Å"I have the memoryÃ my head. Ã¢â¬ (67)As the video went on and on and onÃ¢â¬ ¦Bitsy suddenly cried Ã¢â¬Å"We did get her in! We did! Ã¢â¬ (73) Susan was there. The Arrival Party would be an annual event, alternating houses. This celebration would be the foundation of the Zardan and DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship and the development of Jin Ho and SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s friendship. It would also bring two lonely people, both mourning the loss of theyÃ¢â¬â¢re true loves, Maryam and Dave, together. The following year the YazdanÃ¢â¬â¢s threw the bash, with a few extra people, Ziba had relatives visiting from Iran and BitsyÃ¢â¬â¢s two brothers and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re fam ilies attended.The only missing people were BradÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, who went on a cruise and Connie, BitsyÃ¢â¬â¢s mom who passed away. Maryam gave Dave some advice on coping with his loss and fears that accompany the sadness. Arrival Party number two was underway; song, cake and video to mark another year. Brad and Bitsy also announced they would be adopting another baby girl from China . It was the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s turn the 3rd year and it was starting to be a competition, at least for Bitsy, who felt the YazdanÃ¢â¬â¢s had Ã¢â¬Å"changed the rules,Ã¢â¬ (111) by serving a full dinner instead of just deserts. In full project mode, she planned her diner, canapÃ ©s and all.The Arrival Party came fast and went smoothly, Maryam and DaveÃ¢â¬â¢s small talk was lighter, most of the time, and a bit flirty. Dave did talk about how hard it was watching Connie die, he felt guilty at times that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have more patience with her towards the end. Maryam understood, as no one could, she watched her husband die the same way. Their friendship deepened. Song time came, cake and video. Sami and Ziba bought a larger home, just three blocks from the Donaldsons. Maryam was watching Susan when Dave called and asked if he could bring Jin Ho over to play. She agreed.He wanted to stay, instead of just dropping her off. He had a cup of coffee and Maryam continued her cooking, suddenly insisting he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to stay, she would bring Jin Ho home. He left bewildered. Maryam felt him getting through her invisible wall and sealed it quickly. She went to Vermont to visit a friend, avoiding Dave or probably avoiding having feelings for him. When she returned home she visited Bitsy to thank her for taking care of Susan while she was away. Bitsy chose this time to champion on her fathers behalf, Ã¢â¬Å" My father thinks youÃ¢â¬â¢re wonderful, she said.Would you go out to dinner with him? Ã¢â¬ (151) Maryam subconsciously knew he felt this way but, she kept telli ng herself her he was just a widower needing company. She diverted the subject, which she has a knack of doing. Arrival Party time again, YazdanÃ¢â¬â¢s turn and there thinking of serving Ã¢â¬Å"a whole roast lamb. Ã¢â¬ (153) The celebration was starting to be more like Ã¢â¬Å"I can do better than you,Ã¢â¬ than about the girls. Maryam was helping with the arrangements and Ziba babbled about Dave, this time Maryam spoke up, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m Iranian; heÃ¢â¬â¢s American . . .Ã¢â¬ (154) Ã¢â¬Å"What difference does that make? Ã¢â¬ (154) Ziba asked.Maryam talked about her friend Farah and what a point her American husband makes about her foreignness. Ã¢â¬Å"It seems sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not really Farah at all; sheÃ¢â¬â¢s Madame Iran. Ã¢â¬ (154) Ziba insisted Dave wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like that, but Maryam still felt like a foreigner after over 40 years and to be with an American would make her feel it even stronger. The Arrival Party came, same chitchat, festivities and a farewell for Bitsy and Brad heading off to China. Dave took every opportunity, while watching Jin Ho to visit Maryam.And by the time the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s came home with Xiu Mei, Dave had sneaked inside MaryamÃ¢â¬â¢s protective shield and they were dating. The YazdanÃ¢â¬â¢s threw the next Arrival Party because Xiu Mei had been sickly, in and out of hospitals. The event was slightly different; the girls joined in the singing and the video went basically unobserved. The next event was more energetic, the annual leaf-raking party. Dave had Maryam sit in a chair and instructed the girls to sprinkle sugar on her head, Ã¢â¬Å"Maryam, Dave said. Ã¢â¬Å"Will you marry me? Ã¢â¬Å"(208) Instead of answering, she looked at the girls to see what they put on her head.It should have been cone-shaped to go with the Iranian custom and it should have been grown women holding the sugar to symbolize their happy marriages. He probably thought he was doing something good, but she felt it should of been done exa ctly as itÃ¢â¬â¢s suppose to be done, or not at all. As these thoughts filled her head she said, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. Ã¢â¬ (208) Everyone cheered. The next day Maryam went to Sami and ZibaÃ¢â¬â¢s and told them she only said yes because she was embarrassed not too. Ã¢â¬Å"He is so American,Ã¢â¬ (213) Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have my own separate self.Ã¢â¬ (213)She felt bad and hoped it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect theyÃ¢â¬â¢re friendship with the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s. A year went by before she bumped into Dave again, he was picking up Jin Ho the same time she was picking up Susan at dancing school. They did theyÃ¢â¬â¢re little small talk dance, except he told her Bitsy had cancer. She felt his pain and knew all the memories of Connie must have come rushing back. When she returned home, she wrote Bitsy a note and offered asked if she could be of any help. Maryam was now noticing how lonely she was the past year. How alive she felt with Dave, doing couple things.Maybe the feelings she had were stronger than she realized and the ones about feeling like a foreigner were not as important. One morning, Bitsy called to thank her for the note, they got caught up and both said how much they missed each other. Bitsy asked if she would attend the Arrival Party coming up. Maryam said she would think about it, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want anyone to feel awkward. Pondering to go or not, Maryam something Kiyan once said came to mind, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why truly good people always make me sad. Ã¢â¬ (263) She decided she would go and helped Ziba with the details. The party started and everyone was there, except for Maryam.When Ziba looked in the dinning room all the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s had left, she was devastated so Sami called his mother. She answered, not understanding SamiÃ¢â¬â¢s tone, but said she fully intended on going she just overslept. He told her the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s left and it was safe for her to go over. She insisted she had all intentions of being there. Mar yam then heard Bitsy outside her window, people kept yelling and knocking, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t answer. Finally, she looked out the window and saw all the DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s walking toward their cars. Maryam called, Ã¢â¬Å"Wait for me! Ã¢â¬ (277) The two families would celebrate, yet another Arrival Party!The imprint of these families, meeting by chance; growing in love and friendship by choice, depicts that no matter what culture or mixture of cultures, come together; what really constitutes a bond is the right choice. In making that choice taking into consideration the respect of others beliefs, opinions, insecurities and strengthens. The DonaldsonÃ¢â¬â¢s and YardanÃ¢â¬â¢s, American and Iranian families brought two other cultures into their circle; two little girls from Korea and one from China. When you put all these pieces together, what would theyÃ¢â¬â¢re families culture be? I say theyÃ¢â¬â¢re culture is acceptance.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Many people do not know about the risks, emotional effects or even the cost of abortionsÃ¢â¬ ¦ do you? Abortion applies to many men and women in the world with records going back to the 1800s. Abortion is done surgically or by an abortion pill which removes the fetus from the uterus before it is born. It can happen at any time during the first trimester of pregnancy, meaning week one through week twelve, or about three months; abortions can also occur during the second trimester, beginning at week thirteen. Abortions may not occur during the third trimester after thirteen weeks because it is not legal other than the state of Ohio. In the state of Ohio if there is a heartbeat detected they can not abort past 6 weeks. It can occur in anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Risks are but not limited to hemorrhage, infection, ripped or perforated uterus, cervical injury, embolism, anesthesia complications, convulsions, chronic abdominal pain, cervical injury, endotoxic shock, and Rh sensitiza tion (Frank). Ã¢â¬Å"Chemical and surgical abortions only take twenty minutes after it starts to finishÃ¢â¬ (78-79 Shantz-Hilkes ). Chemical abortions are done by taking a pill which will stop the pregnancy hormones. Ã¢â¬Å"For the chemical pill you can only be 8 weeks 6 days and its $425; it includes prescription pain relievers for the pain after the abortionÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Capital CareÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å" RU-486 is the pill that cuts or blocks the progesterone cutting off blood flow within 24-48 hours you will have severe cramping and bleedingÃ¢â¬ (Levatino). Symptoms may include pelvic pain, nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain, dizziness, tired, feeling, weakness, back pain (Common side). Ã¢â¬Å" Twenty four - forty eight hours after you get the baby removed you will be bleeding and cramping. This is very painful for days and the pain in the uterus will last 9-16 days. Ã¢â¬ Allergic reactions may occur and will occur in many women, including Ã¢â¬Å"closing of the throat, swelling of the lips, and tongue, or face. Seek emergency medical attention if any of these allergic reactions occurÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Capital CareÃ¢â¬ ). There are also factors that determine that you should go to the hospital right away if they occur; these include a Ã¢â¬Å"general ill feeling and fast heart rate, a fever higherShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Abortion815 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortions are a sensitive issue for many people across the US. Women being able to have the decision to abort a child is a terrible crime for some people, and a sense of relief for many others. Abortions are voluntary termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. 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This is a very interesting topic due to the fact that abortion in theRead MoreAnalysis Of Abortion By Jennifer Davis1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHailey Vadnais Women Left Behind by the Reproductive Rights Movement Two feminist readings, Ã¢â¬Å"AbortionÃ¢â¬ by Jennifer Saul and Ã¢â¬Å"Racism, Birth Control, and Reproductive RightsÃ¢â¬ by Angela Davis, both cover the important feminist topics of abortion and reproductive rights, but in different ways. Though very alike, the pieces are different in important ways, as they both bring ideas to the table that work in tandem with each other, as I will discuss below. In this paper, I will cover the differenceRead MoreHills Like White Elephants1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHills Like White Elephants shows a seemingly simple discussion between Jig and an American man about the possibility of an operation. Yet, when the story is dissected it becomes apparent that they are discussing the possibility of an abortion. 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Most abortions are performed in the first twelve weeks using the Ã¢â¬ËvacuumÃ¢â¬â¢ method. The majority of women that choose abortion do so because they are not readyRead MoreWebsite Analysis of National Right to Life Committee (NRLC)696 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pag esMovement, Abortion, Assisted Suicide, Life, Organization. Introduction National Right to Life Committee(NRLC) is the second oldest and largest pro-life organization in the United States. This social movement organization deals with several life-related issues like abortion, assisted suicide or euthanasia, cloning, Medicare issues and so on. However, my focus topics are Ã¢â¬Å"AbortionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Assisted Suicide/ EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ because these are the two most common issues life-related issues. Abortion The rateRead MoreReflection Paper On Health Issues1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinformative. I gained great perspective on health topics affecting womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health status and ways biological and social factors put women at a higher stake for health issues. One of the most important thing I am taking away from this class is the importances of understanding womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health, as a Public Health student womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health has been a topic of interest for a long time. Coming from a developing country where many women grapple with health issues from discrimination and prescribed roles, it hasRead MoreAbortion Is The Destruction Of A Fetus998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdiscuss my position on abortion, how it has changed, and how it compares to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ more established positions. Before I can begin this, however, I must first discuss the terms that will be used and their definitions. For the purposes of this essay an abortion is the destruction of a fetus at any point in devel opment. A fetus constitutes a fertilized egg. At the moment the egg and sperm converge, the product is entitled a fetus. Prior to this course, my opinion on abortion was firm, but underdeveloped
Sunday, December 29, 2019
The 1997-1998 Indonesian Economic Crises. IMF Interventions - Lessons to learn. Introduction. 1997 to1998 saw the East Asian nations of Thailand, Indonesia and South Korea engulfed in an economic and financial crises that nearly collapsed their economies. The IMF was at the center stage to help during these crises. How IMFÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance further deepened IndonesiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic crises, received heavy criticism from Political, economic and social analyst against IMF s programs and Policies in Developing nations worldwide. Brief History of The IMF as an International Financial Institution. The IMF (The International Monetary Fund) with the World Bank, were established in July 1944 at the Bretton Woods conference as International Financial Institutions. Ã¢â¬Å"to Prevent economic crises and to rebuild economies shattered by World war IIÃ¢â¬ The Levin-Institute(n.d). 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Following the first two declines, the United States made efforts to alleviate the declines throughRead MoreInternational Financial Institutions ( Ifis ) Are Central Pillars And The Architects Of The Global Economy1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1.The international financial institutions (IFIs) are central pillars and the architects of the global economy. The world bank and IMF were founded and funded by the United states after the second world war t o build shattered world economy after the war and great depression of the 1930s (socialist alternative,). The creation of the IFIs was to bring about a global economy after the Ã¢â¬Å"isolation economyÃ¢â¬ which some argue brought about the Second World War. The IFIs were to help the economy of the lessRead More Role of IMF and World Bank Essay example1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Introduction The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s major international financial institutions represent paradoxical ideals in their quest to satisfy the needs of both developed and developing nations. These institutions are chartered with helping poor nations but are criticized for their neo-colonial policies. Member nations are all considered equal, but contributions make some more equal than others. Mostly, these organizations are managed by rich nations that usurp the autonomy of developing nations in the pursuitRead MoreGlobalization and Its Discontents1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDiscontents, 2002 Chapters 1 and 2 [pic] Chapter 1: The Promise of Global Institutions International Organizations Ã¢â¬â powerful institutions today A. International Bureaucrats Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Å"faceless symbols of the world economic orderÃ¢â¬ are under attack B. Protests of IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Org Meetings Ã¢â¬â continual flashpoints/conflict 1. WTO Ã¢â¬â Seattle, 1999 protest 2. Annual IMF/World Bank protests 3. Protests not new in developing world, ARE new inRead MoreThe International Monetary Fund ( Imf )1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTHE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) The IMF was set up during the Second World War in the year 1944. It started operation in 1947 and it has been working with the UNO since. Its headquarters is in Washington D.C in America. IMF provides short term loans to countries having problems of balance of payments. It also provides technical advice to its members and ensures free flow of trade by removing all trade restrictions. It establishes and maintains stable exchange rate between member countries
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Isabella Sferra Period 6 Political Science Quiz #2: How a Bill Becomes a Law in Congress First, any citizen can suggest an idea for a bill to their stateÃ¢â¬â¢s congress members. If the congress member supports the idea, they draft a bill aiming to legislate that bill into law. They introduce it into their chamber, either the House or the Senate, from where it is then introduced to the pertinent committee. These committees vary in the divisions of subject matter by chamber, but include ones like Small Business and Entrepreneurship and Indian Affairs in the Senate and Education and the Workforce and Financial Services in the House (www.govtrack.us). Committee members do a number of things with the bill. They debate, hold publicÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦House of Representatives) . If the President uses a regular veto, Congress may override it through a two thirds majority in both houses. Otherwise, the bill then becomes a law. Some of the main differences between Chambers is in the subject matter dealt with. Only the House can initiate bills dealing with revenue and both introduce and decide on impeachments, while the Senate advises on treaties and tries impeached officials (University of Texas). Also, only the Senate can filibuster, or threaten to, because of its unlimited amount of time for debates unless cloture is called. The House sets priorities and rules for the debate of bills through the House Committee on Rules. Some of the problems arising from this system have to do with the lengthy and difficult process bills must go through to be approved. The necessity of going through committees, in both chambers, involves a long process of debates and hearings where bills can easily die. The lack of debate limits in the Senate mean that either party can easily threaten to filibuster a bill to halt its progress. Also, the legislature as a whole has no check against the pocket veto. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Basic Procedural Differences Between the House of Representatives and the Senate.Ã¢â¬ Committee on Rules, U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Rules,Show MoreRelated How a Bill Becomes Law Essay1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesConstitution settles how bills become law in the United States. The procedure is operose and can take significant time to complete. The course materials of week three offer more than enough information on how the procedure works. This essay will, mainly, use the course materials to describe the process of how a bill becomes a law. The process of transforming a bill into a law requires the participation of both the Legislative branch and Executive branch of government. Before there is a law, there isRead MoreTrace The Pathway Of A Bill Essay1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPSC 201 Essay #8 Trace the pathway of a bill through both houses of congress. The process in which a bill becomes a law can be a lengthy one, it must go through many steps in order to become the law of the land. It is believed that this process should be a matter that every American citizen should be informed of in order to fully understand and appreciate the inner workings of congress with regard to The House of Representatives and the Senate. The steps in which a bill becomes a law is an exampleRead MoreHow Does A Bill Become A Law Within The Us Political System?869 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow does a Bill become a Law within the US political system? Each time a bill is sent to become a law it always becomes a hasseling process where if an individual really wants it he or she will fight for it. This process can take months or even years to even come close to finishing, sometimes the bill at the end isn t entirely what it originally was. Like everywhere in the world if a person or group wishes to get something done, connections are the easiest path to achieve what one wants. By connectionsRead MoreRogerian Essay852 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages19 May 2012 1) I am writing this essay because I am a huge advocate of a free internet. The internet should not be able to be monitored by the US government or anyone else. In this essay, I plan to inform the reader on what the US is trying to do to the free internet. 2) I learned a lot by completing this assignment. Most importantly, I learned how to write a Rogerian essay. It was interesting learning about my topic, but learning how to write this essay will benefit me more in life. 3)Read MoreThe Treaty Of The Constitution Essay1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdelegates from 13 states met in Philadelphia to write what was later to become the U.S. Constitution. This draft specifically stated what the government would do but it did not state what it couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do. This became a major hurdle for the ratification of the constitution. For more than four years, there was much debate over the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The Federalists argued that the Constitution did not need to include a Bill of individual rights and the Anti-Federalists refused to agree toRead MoreEssay On Tax Reform1059 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe very fact that most of the republican party had voted favorably in trying to repeal before Trump was elected. Third is that Procedurally the GOP left themselves no real choice, it was that in the month of January the republicans passed a budget bill that including Obamacare, the window had been closed.The fourth is more a opinion but it has tr uth behind it, tax reform is and has been really hard, the truth is for 30 years , the government has yet to really change the tax system, so doing the healthcareRead MoreGovernment: Constitutional Powers and Limits1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesframers could not foresee the expansion of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s power that has happened until the present day. With the Ã¢â¬Å"war on terrorÃ¢â¬ being one of the governments priorities, questions arise if the gov- ernment has become too powerful, especially with regard to practicing surveillance. This essay aims to analyse the limits and powers given to the government by the framers in the seven Arti- cles of the Constitution, and finally apply these Articles to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of sur- veillance today. Read MoreSeparation Of Powers And Checks And Balances1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesseparation of powers by the framers was also because they believed that a government is more likely to stay within the boundaries of the laws. A fter the Constitution three branches were created by the framers; the legislative, executive and judicial. The Legislative branch, Art.1, consist of the House and the Senate, this branch is responsible for endorsing the laws of the state and taking the money necessary to operate the government. The Executive, Art. 2, consist of the President, this branch isRead MoreReconstruction Of The Civil War1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesperiods in American history. It was a period right after the Civil War lasting from approximately from 1863 to 1877. During this time, the leaders of the country and the congress struggled with a challenge of bringing the South back into the Union politically, economically and socially. One of the key challenges they faced was how to reunite the nation and what to do with the thirteen rebellious states that broke off from the Union and joined the Confederacy. Another challenge the government wasRead MoreMarch on Washington Causes and Consequences Essay1522 Word s Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarch On Washington Ã¢â¬â Causes and consequences essay Final The march on Washington in August 1963 is seen by many as the high point of the Civil Rights movement in America. This essay will look at how dissatisfaction with the slow pace of integration growing concern at the economic disparity between black and white Americans, the campaign in Birmingham under Martin Luther King juniors leadership, and the desire to support the proposed civil rights bill that Kennedy was introducing were the main
Friday, December 13, 2019
COMPUTER NETWORKS 4TH MARCH 2012 Examination Paper Answer ALL questions. Clearly cross out surplus answers. Time: 2 hours Any reference material brought into the examination room must be handed to the invigilator before the start of the examination. We will write a custom essay sample on Computer Network Assignment or any similar topic only for you Order Now ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS Marks QUESTION 1 a) State FOUR (4) principles underpinning the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model. b) Describe the purpose of the physical layer of the OSI Reference Model. c) State THREE (3) elements of network design that relate to the physical layer of the OSI Reference Model. ) Describe the purpose of the data link layer. 4 1 3 2 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 2 a) b) c) d) Define the term a packet as used in computer networks. Briefly describe the THREE (3) key components of a packet. Explain the difference between a LAN, MAN and WAN. Describe how signal reflection could be a problem in an Ethernet LAN and explain how this is prevented. 1 3 3 3 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 3 a) b) c) d) Explain why wireless technology was not initially widely adopted. State THREE (3) advantages to using wireless peripheral devices. Describe what a wireless adapter is. Windows 7 Check Your Understanding iframe class="wp-embedded-content" sandbox="allow-scripts" security="restricted" style="position: absolute; clip: rect(1px, 1px, 1px, 1px);" src="https://phdessay.com/windows-7-check-your-understanding/embed/#?secret=8dUD0KAxNg" data-secret="8dUD0KAxNg" width="500" height="282" title="#8220;Windows 7 Check Your Understanding#8221; #8212; Free Essays - PhDessay.com" frameborder="0" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" scrolling="no"/iframe Describe what an access point is. 3 3 2 2 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 4 a) b) c) d) Explain what physical topology is. Explain what logical topology is. Describe how physical topology and logical topology relate to each other. Describe how point to point networks operate. 2 2 2 4 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 5 a) b) c) J State FIVE (5) factors to consider when choosing physical media for a computer network. State FOUR (4) advantages to using fibre-optic cable as a network medium. State the main disadvantage to using fibre-optic cable as a network medium. 4 1 Total 10 Marks QUESTIONS CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE Page 2 of 3 Computer Networks March 2012 Formatted/HW Ã © NCC Education Ltd 2012 Marks QUESTION 6 a) b) Explain what a repeater is and briefly describe how it works. Explain what a router is and briefly describe how it works. 6 4 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 7 a) b) c) List FIVE (5) key factors to take into account when locating wireless access points. You have located an access point in the best available place for your wireless network but it is not providing the complete coverage you require. State THREE (3) options you have to extend the coverage of the wireless network. Your wireless network allows public access via a login page. Describe TWO (2) features that should be included in your login page. 5 3 2 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 8 a) b) c) d) A secure network offers privacy. Explain what privacy is in this context. A secure network offers integrity. Explain what integrity is in this context. A secure network offers availability. Explain what availability is in this context. Describe a man-in-the-middle attack. 2 3 2 3 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 9 a) Firewall traffic blocking rules can be created for network traffic based upon a number of different properties. State THREE (3) properties that are used to create firewall rules. b) Explain what a router firewall does. c) List FOUR (4) key tasks that are vital for managing a firewall. 3 3 4 Total 10 Marks QUESTION 10 a) b) c) State the THREE (3) main functions of a Network Operating System (NOS). Describe how a redirector works. State THREE (3) network services that a NOS will typically enable. 3 4 3 Total 10 Marks END OF EXAM Page 3 of 3 Computer Networks March 2012 Formatted/HW Ã © NCC Education Ltd 2012 How to cite Computer Network Assignment, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Deconstruction of Communalism Diversity. Answer: Introduction: In the era of globalization and multiculturalism culturally diverse group is not only significant for workforce diversity but a great opportunity of assembling language skills, varied perspective and thought process and skills into the project. In a complex project this would be advantageous for the culmination of varied attitudes and skills to achieve better productivity in the project (Harvey Allard, 2015). As it is with varied group belonging from different cultural background, people will bring into the project multiple perspectives that would foster the innovative angle of the project. Any complex project should never adhere to one stereotyped or clichd idea, but should venture out to include more. This could be achieved by taking into consideration multiple perceptions and voices with the help of an enhanced communicational method. The amalgamation of different perspectives would help in increased productivity and faster resolution of complex issues (Harvey Allard, 2015). One of the many challenges of assisting project internationally is to implement strategies in proper synchronization with other communities and their cultural beliefs. Communal discontent is one of the burning issues today, some of the practices are moreover threatened by globalization. As a PM it becomes indeed difficult to strike a proper balance in introducing major policies and challenges in a progressive manner without hurting the sentiments of people at large (Singh, 2017). Another crisis while looking after international projects could be planning an effective budgeting which could be affected by the economy of the other countries thereby resulting in financial depletion and unnecessary expenses. While assisting international projects is unforeseen expenses and lack of collaboration on the part of the countries to come to a negotiation (Lynch, 2017). As far as my opinion is concerned, assisting projects internationally requires a very able project management team who would be able to predict possible time loss, financial instability, and lack of co-ordination in time schedules while completing the work (Beck, 2018). People who are connected with the project, positioning lower in the hierarchy of power often faces communicational hindrances due to lack of education and communication skills. As a PM responding to all these circumstances is a matter of time and money. Hiring experienced management team can eradicate the problems. Reference List: Beck, U. (2018).What is globalization?. John Wiley Sons. Harvey, C. P., Allard, M. (2015).Understanding and managing diversity: Readings, cases, and exercises. Pearson. Lynch, F. R. (2017).The diversity machine: The drive to change the white male workplace. Routledge. Singh, N. K. (2017). Mahesh Dattani's Final Solutions: Deconstruction of Communalism.International Journal on Multicultural Literature,7(2).
Thursday, November 28, 2019
The issue of gun control and violence, both in Canada and the United States, is one that simply will not go away. If history is to be any guide, no matter what the resolution to the gun control debate is, it is probable that the arguments pro and con will be much the same as they always have been. In 1977, legislation was passed by the Canadian Parliament regulating long guns for the first time, restructuring the availability of firearms, and increasing a variety of penalties . Canadian firearms law is primarily federal, and"therfore national in scope, while the bulk of the firearms regulation in the United States is at the state level; attempts to introduce stricter leglislation at the federal level are often defeated". The importance of this issue is that not all North Americans are necessarily supportive of strict gun control as being a feasible alternative to controlling urban violence. There are concerns with the opponents of gun control, that the professional criminal who wants a gun can obtain one, and leaves the average law-abiding citizen helpless in defending themselves against the perils of urban life. Is it our right to bear arms as North Americans? Or is it privilege? And what are the benefits of having strict gun control laws? Through the analysis of the writings and reports of academics and experts of gun control and urban violence, it will be possible to examine the issues and theories of the social impact of this issue. Part II: Review of the Literature A) Summary In a paper which looked at gun control and firearms violence in North America, Robert J. Mundt, of the University of North Carolina, points out that "Crime in America is popularly perceived [in Canada] as something to be expected in a society which has less respect for the rule of law than does Canadian society..." . In 1977, the Canadian government took the initiative to legislate stricter gun control. Among the provisions legislated by the Canadian government was a "Firearms Acquisition Certificate" for the purchase of any firearm, and strengthened the "registration requirements for handguns and other restricted weapons...". The purpose of the 1977 leglislation was to reduce the availability of firearms, on the assumption that there is a "positive relationship between availability and use". In Robert J. Mundt's study, when compared with the United States, trends in Canada over the past ten years in various types of violent crime, suicide, and accidental death show no dramatic results, "and few suggestions of perceptible effects of the 1977 Canadian gun control legislation". The only positive effect , Mundt, found in the study was the decrease in the use of firearms in robbery with comparion to trends in the United States . Informed law enforcement officers in Canada, as in the United States, view the "impact of restricting the availability of firearms is more likely to impact on those violent incidents that would not have happened had a weapon been at hand"(152). In an article by Gary A. Mauser of the Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, he places special emphasis on the attitudes towards firearms displayed by both Canadians and Americans. According to Mauser, large majorities of the general public in both countries "support gun control legislation while simultaneously believing that they have the right to own firearms" (Mauser 1990:573). Despite the similarities, there are apparent differences between the general publics in the two countries. As Mauser states that "Canadians are more deferent to authority and do not support the use of handguns in self defence to the same extent as Americans". As Mauser points out that "it has been argued that cultural differences account for why Canada has stricter gun control legislation than the United States"(575). Surprisingly enough, nationwide surveys in both Canada and the United States "show remarkable similarity in the public attitude towards firearms and gun control"(586). Both Canada and the United States were originally English colonies, and both have historically had similar patterns of immigration. Moreover, Canadians are exposed to American television (both entertainment and news programming) and, Canadians and Americans read many of the same books and magazines. As a result of this, the Canadian public has adopted "much of the American culture". In an article by Catherine F. Sproule and Deborah J. Kennett of Trent University, they looked at the use of firearms in Canadian homicides between the years of 1972-1982. There findings firmly support the conclusion that gun control is beneficial. According to Sproule and Kennett, gun control "may be influencing some suspects to kill by other methods, but it is less likely for these suspects to kill multiple victims". From